Virtuoso has step by step PL debugging capabilities and a call stack trace option. When Virtuoso is running with a console or with stdout going somewhere like a file you can print debug messages directly to that using dbg_printf() and dbg_obj_print() functions.

Procedure source code can be written to an ASCII file using any text/programming editor. This file can be loaded into ISQL using the load command or directly from the command line using the ISQL batch mode:

isql data-source user password file

ISQL can then be used to test the procedures functionality. Procedures can return result sets to ISQL for data debugging purposes too. When dealing with results sets in ISQL remember to call procedures using the CALL keyword to ensure that ISQL outputs all result sets:

CALL procedure(arguments);

The PL procedure debugger allows you to execute procedures step-by step, or stop execution based upon a predefined condition within Virtuoso/PL procedure(s). This feature is not intended for SQL statements debugging. SQL statements are treated as atomic units of execution, it is not possible to step into these. It is possible to step over a procedure which loops over a cursor, though. Procedures are compiled with extra information for debugging, thus the speed of execution may be somewhat reduced. It is possible to step in or step over statements, however this does not apply to SQL statements. In order to start debugging on some event, breakpoints are required. The breakpoints can be global or temporary. The global breakpoint means the process will stop with or without a debug session. The temporary breakpoints are to stop execution only in the current debug session.

Procedure debugging can be activated in two ways. You can instruct Virtuoso to enable debugging information for all procedures using the PLDebug parameter in the Virtuoso INI file, or for selected procedures by including a special comment "--pl_debug+ " at the top of the procedure. Debug information is visible only from a debugging tool such as ISQL

ISQL can be used as a procedure debugging tool. ISQL is started in debug mode using the -D switch:

isql <host:port> dba <dba-password> -D

Debugging of the server is restricted to dba privileged accounts for security reasons. The summary of the debug commands available can be viewed from typing help in the debugger. The following list will be shown:

DEBUG> help
OpenLink Interactive PL Debugger (Virtuoso).

Available commands:
    BREAK procedure_name [line number] - Set breakpoint at specified line or PL function
    NEXT  - Step program, proceeding through PL subroutine calls.
    INFO (THREAD|CLIENT|BREAK) - Generic command for showing things about the program/process being debugged.
            THREAD - Running threads
            CLIENT - Connected SQL/ODBC clients
            BREAK - Active breakpoints
    ATTACH thread_id|client_id - Attach to a running process.
    STEP  - Step PL program until it reaches a different source line.
    LIST [procedure name] [line number] - List specified procedure or line.
    WHERE  - Print backtrace of all stack frames.
    CONTINUE  - Continue PL program being debugged after breakpoint.
    PRINT variable_name - Print value of variables or arguments.
    SET variable_name new_value - Assign a specified value to a variable.
    DELETE ([breakpoint_number]|[procedure_name] [line_number]) - Delete some breakpoints.
    FRAME frame_number - Select and print a stack frame.
    FINISH  - Execute until returns.
    UNTIL line_number - Execute until the program reaches a source line greater than the current.

There are two debug modes: local, for issuing local breakpoints and step commands; global, for making global breakpoints.

There are two console or screen modes to debug/attach-to. These are: the global console, which allows you to issue the INFO, ATTACH, BREAK, DELETE commands; the local console, which once attached (using the ATTACH command) via the global console becomes local and all possible commands are available.

There are two syntaxes for specifying breakpoint locations, BREAK FFFF NNN and BREAK FFFF where FFFF is a name of a procedure.

Local breakpoints will interrupt execution only if there is a connected debug session. Global break points will cause the process to stop regardless.

The source identification and line number output can be controlled with a special comment in the PL code. This can be useful when you want to alter the compilers notion of the current file and line number. --src FILENAME:LINENUMBER can be used to reset the counters to the specified filename and line number. This is also useful for handling test coverage output - see the next section.

Example 11.16. Debugging simple procedures

Consider the following PL procedures:

create procedure
db.dba.test_proc1 (in b varchar)
{
  --pl_debug+
   declare c integer;
   c := 0;
   for select u_id, u_name from sys_users do
     {
       c := u_id;
     }

   c := vector (1);

   c := test_proc2 ();

   return c;
};

create procedure
db.dba.test_proc2 ()
{
  --pl_debug+
  declare x, y any;
  x := 1;
  if (x = 1)
     {
       y := x + 1;
     }
   else
     {
       y := 2;
     }
   return y;
};

Here is a simple debugging session on the above procedures:

$ isql localhost:1111 dba dba -D
Debug session established to localhost:1111

Display the test procedures to familiarize yourself with the lines and their line numbers.

DEBUG> list db.dba.test_proc1;
1 create procedure
2 test_proc1 (in b varchar)
3 {
4   --pl_debug+
5   declare c integer;
6   c := 0;
7   for select u_id, u_name from sys_users do
8     {
9       c := u_id;
10     }

DEBUG> list db.dba.test_proc1 11;
11
12   c := vector (1);
13
14   c := test_proc2 ();
15
16   return c;
17 }
18
19
20

put a break after for select statement.

DEBUG> break db.dba.test_proc1 11
Breakpoint at: procedure DB.DBA.test_proc1, line 11

Now, start another ISQL session to Virtuoso and run the procedure that we are debugging, DB.DBA.test_proc1(''), and wait for it to hit the breakpoint. Back to the debug ISQL, get the list of breakpoints:

DEBUG> info thre
@1111:4 in DB.DBA.test_proc1 () at 11

attach to thread of interest:

DEBUG> attach @1111:4
1111:4

Find out where it stopped:

DEBUG> where
#0 DB.DBA.test_proc1 () at 11
#1 ?? () at 0

print the value of 'c' now, and continue step by step

DEBUG> print c
$25 "c" INTEGER (189) 4
DEBUG> next
11
DEBUG> print c
$25 "c" INTEGER (189) 4
DEBUG> next
12   c := vector (1);
DEBUG> print c
$25 "c" ARRAY_OF_POINTER (193) (1 )
DEBUG> next
13

step into the test_proc2 procedure:

DEBUG> step
14   c := test_proc2 ();

examine the stack

DEBUG> where
#0 DB.DBA.test_proc2 () at 4
#1 DB.DBA.test_proc1 () at 14
#2 ?? () at 0

step through the test_proc2 procedure

DEBUG> next
7   x := 1;
DEBUG> next
8   if (x = 1)
DEBUG> next
10       y := x + 1;
DEBUG> next
11     }
DEBUG> print y
$25 "y" INTEGER (189) 2

set the 'y' to be 100

DEBUG> set y 100
The 'y' is set to '100'.
DEBUG> next
16   return y;
DEBUG> print c
$25 "c" INTEGER (189) 100

continue the execution

DEBUG> cont
Execution resumed
DEBUG>