The indexes in place on the RDF_QUAD table can greatly affect the performance of SPARQL queries, as can be determined by running the STATISTICS command on the table as follows:

SQL> STATISTICS DB.DBA.RDF_QUAD;
Showing SQLStatistics of table(s) 'DB.DBA.RDF_QUAD'
TABLE_QUALIFIER  TABLE_OWNER      TABLE_NAME       NON_UNIQUE  INDEX_QUALIFIER  INDEX_NAME       TYPE        SEQ_IN_INDEX  COLUMN_NAME      COLLATION  CARDINALITY  PAGES       FILTER_CONDITION
VARCHAR          VARCHAR          VARCHAR          SMALLINT    VARCHAR          VARCHAR          SMALLINT    SMALLINT    VARCHAR          VARCHAR  INTEGER     INTEGER     VARCHAR
_______________________________________________________________________________

DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         NULL        NULL             NULL             0           NULL        NULL             NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         0           DB               RDF_QUAD         3           1           P                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         0           DB               RDF_QUAD         3           2           S                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         0           DB               RDF_QUAD         3           3           O                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         0           DB               RDF_QUAD         3           4           G                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_GS      3           1           G                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_GS      3           2           S                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_OP      3           1           O                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_OP      3           2           P                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_POGS    3           1           P                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_POGS    3           2           O                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_POGS    3           3           G                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_POGS    3           4           S                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_SP      3           1           S                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL
DB               DBA              RDF_QUAD         1           DB               RDF_QUAD_SP      3           2           P                NULL     NULL        NULL        NULL

15 Rows. -- 24 msec.
SQL>

With only one index (OGPS ) created by default, if the graph is always given, as with one or more FROM or FROM NAMED clauses, and there are no patterns where only graph and predicate are given, then the default indices should be sufficient. If predicate and graph are given but subject is not, then it is sometimes useful to add:

CREATE BITMAP INDEX RDF_QUAD_PGOS
  ON DB.DBA.RDF_QUAD (G, P, O, S)
  PARTITION (O VARCHAR (-1, 0hexffff));

Note: If the server version is pre-5.0.7, leave out the partitioning clause.

Making the PGOS index can help in some cases even if it is not readily apparent from the queries that one is needed. This is so, for example, if the predicate by itself is selective; i.e., there is a predicate that occurs in only a few triples.

There is one known application scenario that requires a small alteration to the default index scheme. If the application has a large number of small graphs, e.g. millions of graphs of tens or hundreds of triples each, and it commonly happens that large numbers of graphs contain exactly the same triple, for example the same triple is found in 100000 or one million graphs, then some operations will become inefficient with the default index scheme. In specific, dropping a graph may have to scan through large amounts of data in order to find the right quad to delete from the set of quads that differ only in the graph.

This will affect a graph replace and a graph drop or generally any deletion that falls on a quad of the described sort. If this is the situation in the application, then dropping the RDF_QUAD_GS distinct projection and replacing it with a covering index that starts with G is appropriate:

Drop index RDF_QUAD_GS;
Create column index RDF_QUAD_GPSO on RDF_QUAD (G, P, S, O) partition (S int (0hexffff00);

The partition clause only affects cluster settings and is ignored in the single server case. Partitioning on S is usually better than on O since the distribution of S is generally less skewed than that of O . That is, there usually are some very common O values (e.g. class "thing"). This will increase space consumption by maybe 25% compared to the default scheme.