Virtuoso extends SPARQL syntax of from and from named clauses. It allows additional list of options at end of clause: option ( param1 value1, param2 value2, ... ) where parameter names are QNames that start with get: prefix and values are "precode" expressions, i.e. expressions that does not contain variables other than external parameters. Names of allowed parameters are listed below.

  • get:soft

    is the retrieval mode, supported values are "soft" and "replacing". If the value is "soft" then the SPARQL processor will not even try to retrieve triples if the destination graph is non-empty. Other

    get:...

    parameters are useless without this one.

  • get:uri

    is the IRI to retrieve if it is not equal to the IRI of the

    from

    clause. These can be used if data should be retrieved from a mirror, not from original resource location or in any other case when the destination graph IRI differs from the location of the resource.

  • SQL>SPARQL
    define get:uri "http://example.com/dataspace/person/kidehen"
    SELECT ?id
    FROM NAMED <http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/sioc.ttl>
    WHERE { graph ?g { ?id a ?o } }
    LIMIT 10;
    
    id
    VARCHAR
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1231
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1231
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1243
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1243
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/person/kidehen@openlinksw.com#this
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D
    
    10 Rows. -- 10 msec.
    
    
  • get:method

    is the HTTP method that should be used to retrieve the resource, supported methods are "GET" for plain HTTP and "MGET" for URIQA web service endpoint. By default, "MGET" is used for IRIs that end with "/" and "GET" for everything else.

  • get:refresh

    is the maximum allowed age of the cached resource, no matter what is specified by the server where the resource resides. The value is an positive integer (number of seconds). Virtuoso reads HTTP headers and uses "Date", "ETag", "Expires", "Last-Modified", "Cache-Control" and "Pragma: no-cache" fields to calculate when the resource should be reloaded, this value can become smaller due to

    get:refresh

    but can not be incremented.

  • SQL>SPARQL
    define get:refresh "3600"
    SELECT ?id
    FROM NAMED <http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/sioc.ttl>
    WHERE { graph ?g { ?id a ?o } }
    LIMIT 10;
    
    id
    VARCHAR
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1231
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1231
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1243
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1243
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/person/kidehen@openlinksw.com#this
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D
    
    10 Rows. -- 10 msec.
    
    
  • get:proxy

    address of the proxy server, as "host:port" string, if direct download is impossible; the default is to not use proxy.

  • SQL>SPARQL
    define get:proxy "www.openlinksw.com:80"
    define get:method "GET"
    define get:soft "soft"
    SELECT ?id
    FROM NAMED <http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/sioc.ttl>
    WHERE { graph ?g { ?id a ?o } }
    LIMIT 10;
    
    id
    VARCHAR
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1231
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1231
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1243
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1243
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/1261
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/person/kidehen@openlinksw.com#this
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D
    
    10 Rows. -- 10 msec.
    SQL> limit 10;
    
  • If a value of some get:... parameter repeats for every from clause then it can be written as a global pragma like define get:soft "soft" . The following two queries will work identically:

    SQL>SPARQL
    SELECT ?id
    FROM NAMED <http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/sioc.ttl>
      OPTION (get:soft "soft", get:method "GET")
    FROM NAMED <http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/sioc.ttl>
      OPTION (get:soft "soft", get:method "GET")
    WHERE { graph ?g { ?id a ?o } }
    LIMIT 10;
    
    id
    VARCHAR
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/person/oerling#this
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/958
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/958
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/949
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/949
    
    10 Rows. -- 862 msec.
    
  • SQL>SPARQL
    define get:method "GET"
    define get:soft "soft"
    SELECT ?id
    FROM NAMED <http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/kidehen@openlinksw.com/weblog/kidehen@openlinksw.com%27s%20BLOG%20%5B127%5D/sioc.ttl>
    FROM NAMED <http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/sioc.ttl>
    WHERE { graph ?g { ?id a ?o } }
    LIMIT 10;
    
    id
    VARCHAR
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/person/oerling#this
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/958
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/958
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/949
    http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/oerling/weblog/Orri%20Erling%27s%20Blog/949
    
    10 Rows. -- 10 msec.
    
  • It can make text shorter and it is especially useful when the query text comes from client but the parameter should have a fixed value due to security reasons: the values set by define get:... can not be redefined inside the query and the application may prevent the text with desired pragmas before the execution.

    Note that the user should have SPARQL_UPDATE role in order to execute such a query. By default SPARQL web service endpoint is owned by SPARQL user that have SPARQL_SELECT but not SPARQL_UPDATE . It is possible in principle to grant SPARQL_UPDATE to SPARQL but this breaches the whole security of the RDF storage.

  • FROM CLAUSE with options

    : options in OPTION() list should be delimited with commas. grab options are not allowed as they are global for the query. Only specific 'get:xxx' options are useful here.

  • SQL>SPARQL
    PREFIX foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/>
    SELECT DISTINCT ?friend
    FROM NAMED  <http://example.com/dataspace/person/kidehen>
    OPTION (get:soft "soft", get:method "GET")
    WHERE
      {
          <http://example.com/dataspace/person/kidehen#this> foaf:knows
    ?friend .
      };
    friend
    VARCHAR
    _______________________________________________________________________________
    
    http://www.dajobe.org/foaf.rdf#i
    http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#i
    http://www.w3.org/People/Connolly/#me
    http://my.opera.com/chaals/xml/foaf#me
    http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/card#amy
    http://www.w3.org/People/EM/contact#me
    http://example.com/dataspace/person/ghard#this
    http://example.com/dataspace/person/omfaluyi#this
    http://example.com/dataspace/person/alanr#this
    http://example.com/dataspace/person/bblfish#this
    http://example.com/dataspace/person/danja#this
    http://example.com/dataspace/person/tthibodeau#this
    ...
    36 Rows. -- 1693 msec.