Virtuoso can be configured to authenticate ODBC logins with a single X.509 certificate. The certificate must be registered server side for this purpose and may contain an additional custom attribute for the users SQL account name. In this way all login information is held in the possibly password protected certificate. The user specifies the certificate path in the place of the user name and the certificate encryption password as the password. This works with the login dialog of the ODBC driver or within a SQLDriverConnect login string.

It is also possible to set up the ODBC client to check for the server's X.509 certificate by specifying a client side CA (Certificate Authority) list.

The X509 certificate can be used for authentication with the Virtuoso server via SSL. In this case the ODBC client will use an X.509 certificate which contains a SQL username as an extension. This extension is added when the certificate is issued. Since an object ID (OID) of the username attribute can be used any valid object identifier that does not conflict with existing OIDs (for example 2.16.840.1.NNNNNN). It will be best to have one's own registered OID for that purpose.

Virtuoso supports WebID Protocol ODBC Login. Thus, the INI parameter X509ClientVerify can accept the following values:

  • 0 - do not require

  • 1 - ask for trusted certificates

  • 2 - optionally ask, if certificate is given will be verified

  • 3 - accept optionally any certificate even self-signed

If certificate contains WebID, the odbc login will use it. The WebID can be setup to particular account via Conductor's users interface.

A typical [Parameters] INI section should contain:

SSLServerPort         = 1113
SSLCertificate          = keys/server.crt
SSLPrivateKey         =  keys/server.key
X509ClientVerify      = 3

The client could connect in following way:

isql 1113 "" -X client.p12 -T server.crt

Note: The client certificate client.p12 contains WebID which is registered to some sql user account via Conductor.

To generate X509 certificates one can use the "openssl" tool obtained freely from . The openssl.cnf configuration file must be edited to include the new extension for sqlUserName, but first we have to find the hexadecimal representation of the SQL Username. Then you can proceed the use the openssl to create and confirm the certificate. Follow the steps below:

  1. Find the HEX representation of the SQL Username

    You can either work this out from ASCII codes or use a hexdump utility found on most Unix platforms. The following command would be sufficient, replacing <user_name> with the actual username:

    $ echo -n "<user_name>" | hexdump -e '":" 1/1 "%02X"'

    For example, the username 'dba' would be :64:62:61 .

  2. Edit the OpenSSL config file: openssl.cnf

    Open the file in a text editor of your choosing and add the following:

    [ new_oids ]
    [ usr_cert ]
    sqlUserName = DER:NN:NN:NN:NN:NN.....

    replacing :NN:NN..... with the hexadecimal representation of the username we discovered in the previous step.

  3. Make New Certificate Request

    Make new certificate request using the command:

    $ openssl req -new

    The tool will ask for certain details. Once completed it will generate a private key also.

  4. Generate Certificate

    Assuming the role of CA, generate a certificate using the request from the previous step, using the following command:

    $ openssl ca -in <req_file>

    The tool will print the details of request and will ask you to sign and commit the certificate into the CA repository.

  5. Verify New Certificate

    Check that the certificate contains the right SQL account name; use the following command to obtain a text dump of the certificate:

    openssl x509 -in <certfile> -text -noout

    Now we can scan the contents of the output for the extension entries we added earlier:

    X509v3 extensions:
    ^^^^^^ this should match the new OID ^^^^^

The Virtuoso server can work in two modes based on an SSL connection:

basic - this is when only connection is secured, no certificate verification. The client is not required to have its own trusted certificate.
trusted - additional mechanisms are enabled to check client's certificate. in this case the client is required to have a trusted certificate.

To allow Virtuoso to check the client's certificates, the virtuoso.ini file must contain the following entries in [Parameters] section:

; Basic session encryption only parameters
SSLServerPort           = 1113
SSLCertificate          = ./srv.cert.pem ; server's certificate
SSLPrivateKey           = ./srv.key.pem  ; server's private key, must match the certificate
; Trusted operation parameters
X509ClientVerify        = 1
X509ClientVerifyCAFile  = ./ca.pem         ; CA list; file containing certificates of acceptable CA
X509ClientVerifyDepth   = 1                ; dependent of type of certificate checking can be &gt;1
X509ExtensionOID          = 2.16.840.1.NNNNNNN.1 ; the OID value, same as that used to make client's certificates

All certificate/key files need to be in PEM format.

The server needs an "SSLCertificate" and "SSLPrivateKey" to begin listening on the "SSLServerPort". These are essential for the secure operations. Furthermore the certificate must match the private key; non-matching certificate and private keys will prevent server startup and an error will be logged. The private key is required to guarantee that the certificate's claim is true. The server certificate is used by the client to identify the server. The client can retrieve and verify this key and choose whether the server an be trusted depending on circumstances.

[Note] Note:

basic operation (SSL/TLS) encryption only cannot be used to identify a client with certificate.

The "X509ClientVerifyCAFile" is a file containing a CA's (Certificate Authority) certificates that the server can use to verify client certificates. The client certificate verification in general depends on the "X509ClientVerify" flag, which enables or disable this feature. The 'X509ClientVerifyDepth" parameter is used to verify to what degree server will trust the client's certificate. The lower the value, the higher the restriction levels, with a minimum value of 1. This means that the server will look in CA's certificates to find who has issued the client certificate. If there is no matching CA entry the connection will be rejected; If there is a matching entry then verify the issuer chain; If issuer chain is greater than "X509ClientVerifyDepth", the connection will be rejected.

All file paths above must be either absolute or relative to the server working directory.

[Note] Note:

If primary key file is encrypted then the server must be started in foreground mode so that a password can be supplied in order to open the file.

The following connection options control the client's behavior regarding SSL:

Encrypt - specifies type of secure connection to be used.
ServerCert - (optional) to specify which certificate(s) are to be used to verify server certificates.

The Encrypt option can be set to '1' to specify a basic secure connection; no server identity verification will be performed. Note that this is only possible when the server is also set to make basic SSL connections.

To ensure server's identity the Encrypt option must be set to full or relative (to application working directory) path to the file containing client's certificate and private key. This file can be encoded in PKCS#12 or PEM format. The certificate and private key contained may be generated using the steps outlined above.

When the Encrypt option is set to point to a certificate file, the ServerCert option must be set to the full or relative path to file containing list of CA certificates in PEM format. The content of this file will be used to verify server's certificate.

When using these options the UID connection-option must be set to an empty string to enable certificate authorization. The PWD option will be used to open the private key.

Here is an example of an ODBC connect-string:

connectString =

If client's certificate does not contains user name for SQL login then the server will try matching the certificate fingerprint against registered certificates. If any SQL account has such a certificate registered it will be used for login. Otherwise login will be rejected.

To enable a client certificate to be used for authorization, the DBA must register it's MD5 fingerprint (checksum) in the database. Registered certificates can be removed from system. Two functions exist for the purposes: USER_CERT_REGISTER() , and USER_CERT_UNREGISTER() . Both functions rely on the MD5 checksum of the certificates being registered or un-registered, therefor you have the option of supplying these functions with the certificate file or the MD5 checksum directly.

The functions are:

USER_CERT_REGISTER (user_name , certificate , password , type );

USER_CERT_UNREGISTER (user_name , certificate , password , type );

The registered certificate's fingerprints are kept in the DB.DBA.SYS_USERS table as vectors of strings under the 'LOGIN_CERTIFICATES' user option value (U_OPTS column). The data stored there can be retrieved using a third function:


For example, one might invoke:

USER_CERT_REGISTER ('DBA', 'file:/dba.pem', '', 'PEM');

Note that 'file:' URL is needed to designate certificate is in a file on file system.

The above action can be performed also without certificate supplied if the MD5 fingerprint is known:

USER_CERT_REGISTER ('DBA', 'D9:6D:47:D7:67:47:D7:3C:2C:E0:89:91:F3:BC:E7:59');


USER_CERT_UNREGISTER ('DBA', 'D9:6D:47:D7:67:47:D7:3C:2C:E0:89:91:F3:BC:E7:59');