create-element — Creates an element with specified name, attributes and children


node create-element ( head sequence ,
child1 any ,
child2 any ,
... ,
childN any );


This is an internal XQUERY function and you will probably never need to call it explicitly. It is not a part of library of standard XQUERY 1.0 functions.

This function creates a new "XML Tree" element whose name is a string-value of the first item of head sequence, with attributes and children specified by the rest of head sequence and by the list of arguments child1 , child2 , ... childN .

First of all, a new element will be created, without attributes or children. The name of element will be taken from the first item of the head sequence. Then attributes will be created from the second and third items of head , from fourth and fifth and so on. In every pair of items will specify name and value of some attribute. Non-string items will be converted to strings first. It is an error to specify the same attribute name twice in head sequence.

When the "opening tag" of the element is prepared, children are added, in the same order as they are specified by arguments child1 , child2 , ... childN . If the value of some argument is a sequences (e.g. a node-set), items of the sequence are added as separate children in the same order as they are in the sequence. Nodes are added "as-is", numbers, strings and other "scalar" values are converted to strings first and these strings are converted into PCDATA (text) children.

"Attribute descriptor" objects are not converted to children elements; if descriptor item is found, one attribute in the opening tag of the created element is added or changed and the descriptor is removed from the list of children.

When all children are prepared, some normalization is performed. If there are two or more adjacent PCDATA (text) children, they are replaced with one PCDATA children whose text is a concatenation of texts of all that children.



Name of the element or a sequence of name and attributes of the element.


Children node or sequence of children node.

Return Types



Table24.139.Errors signalled by

SQLState Error Code Error Text Description
XP001 XPFC0 At least one argument (name of element to be created) must be passed to create-element XPATH function. create-element is called without arguments.
XP001 XPFC1 No name of element in the first argument of create-element XPATH function. The head sequence is empty.
XP001 XPFC2 Last attribute has no value specified in the first argument of create-element XPATH function. The head sequence is of even length.
XP001 XPFC3 Unsupported type of element of the first argument of create-element XPATH function. Current version may create name and attributes of elements only from strings, entities and numbers.
XP001 XPFC4 Duplicate attribute names in first argument of create-element XPATH function. Duplicate attribute names may appear in attribute descriptors but not in the head argument.
XP001 XPFC5 First argument of create-element XPATH function must be string, symbol or sequence of them. The function was unable to prepare name of element.
XP001 XPFC6 Error in XPATH user extension function or internal error: sequence argument is not flat in create-element XPATH function. A value of XQUERY "sequence" type should not contain other sequences as its items, i.e. it must be "flat".
XP001 XPFC7 Invalid special entity found in argument of create-element XPATH function. An invalid object (probably built by XPATH extension function) is specified as child entity.
XP001 XPFCA Persistent XML entities are not fully supported by create-element XPATH function. The function creates "XML Tree" element, "Persistent XML" entity can not become a children of "XML Tree".
XP001 XPFCB Unsupported type of argument in create-element XPATH function. Some argument or some item of an argument may not be converted to a string or a node, so a children may not be created.



Two following XQUERY expressions are equivalent:

<H1>{'Hello, '}<B>{'world'}</B></H1>
create-element('H1', 'Hello, ', create-element('B', 'world'))